Cardiovascular Preview

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Cardiovascular Preview Lecture, Questions, and Video

Cardiovascular Preview Section (free). The full section has 212 questions and a video lecture that is (1:46:03).  

Cardiovascular Lecture Slides

 

Title: Cardiovascular Preview Lecture Slides

Details of the Slide Show Covers: These lecture slides are a preview of the Full Cardiovascular Section of the NCCPA Blueprint for the PANCE and PANRE. These slides contain content from the first topic Cardiomyopathy.

Total Length: 12 slides

Full Presentation Can Be Accessed:  Cardiovascular Blueprint

Cardiovascular Preview Questions (10 Questions)

 

Title: Cardiovascular Preview Questions

Details of the Slide Show Covers: This slide show contains a free preview of 10 PANCE Style Questions, Answers, and Detailed Explanations.

Total Length: 20 slides

Full Presentation Can Be Accessed:  PANCE/PANRE Board Review Questions

 

Cardiovascular Preview Lecture Video 

Title:  Cardiovascular Blueprint Lecture Video Preview

Details Covered:  This video is a preview of the full section for the PANCE/PANRE.  This video covers the Cardiomyopathy section.

Total Length:  9 minutes 58 seconds.  Full  Lecture Video is 1 hour, 46 minutes.

Full Presentation Can Be Accessed:  Cardiovascular Blueprint Full Lecture Video

Cardiovascular Preview Blueprint Lecture Notes

Dilated Cardiomyopathy

Defined as being characterized by enlargement of chambers and impaired systolic function.

Can involved one or both ventricles

Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Causes
-Genetic
-Thyrotoxicosis
-Metabolic (Starvation)
-Peri or Post partum
-Cobalt ingestion

Dilated Cardiomyopathy
-Sarcoidosis
-Hemochromatosis
-Radiation
-Thiamine Deficiency
-Alcohol
-Catecholamine induced
-Infectious (Viral and Parasitic)
-Radiation

Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Big Picture-can be idiopathic but can be caused by ingestion of toxins, radiation, infection, or metabolic disorders
-Physical Exam similar to a patient with heart failure
-EKG may show some LVH or RVH
-ECHO is necessary for diagnosis
-Cardiac biopsy only for those who may have treatable cause
-Treatment is similar to heart failure targeted at increasing preload and decreasing after load.
-ACE inhibitors and Beta Blockers are ideal for those patients who can tolerate them

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Has normal or small left ventricle size
Involves a disproportionate thickening of the inter-ventricular septum
Causes outflow obstruction and diastolic disfunction
Mainly an autosomal dominant cause
Can cause life threatening arrhythmias

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Can be asymptomatic
Most common symptom is dyspnea on exertion
May have exertion chest pain from outflow obstruction rather than coronary artery disease
Syncope or dizziness may be present
can cause life threatening arrhythmias

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Can be asymptomatic
Most common symptom is dyspnea on exertion
May have exertion chest pain from outflow obstruction rather than coronary artery disease
Syncope or dizziness may be present
Physical Findings-crescendo-decrescendo systolic murmur
S4 gallop from increased ventricular stiffness

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Can hear an S3 if left ventricular systolic problems
ECHO is needed for diagnostic confirmation and to determine the severity
May need cath to rule out concomitant coronary artery disease
Treatment is targeted at improving diastolic disfunction
Calcium channel blockers are ideal
Beta blockers can be used to
These increase preload and allow the ventricle to fill better

Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
Has a small ventricle size
May involve one or two ventricles
Characterized by diastolic dysfunction
Elevated ventricular filling pressures
Systolic function normal
Most common causes is amyloidosis
Can be idiopathic
Can be caused by Sarcoidosis, Hemochromatosis, Radiation, scleroderma, Gaucher’s disease

Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
Physical exam-signs of right heart failure are present
Elevated right side heart pressures and dilated neck veins
ECHO is needed in the diagnosis
Right heart cath sometimes needed to make sure it is not constrictive pericarditis
Treatment is similar to heart failure
Diuretics help decrease systemic vascular resistance

Cardiomyopathy Summary
Dilated Cardiomyopathy-systolic dysfunction, may affect one or both ventricles. Symptoms similar to CHF. Dilated chambers

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy-diastolic problem, small chambers can cause outflow obstruction. Can cause DOE or chest pain with activity

Restrictive Cardiomyopathy-diastolic problem, elevated right heart pressures, amyloidosis most common cause, treatment similar to heart failure

NCCPA Topic List Cardiovascular Blueprint

Cardiomyopathy
Dilated
Hypertrophic
Restrictive
Conduction Disorders
Atrial fibrillation/flutter
Atrioventricular block
Bundle branch block
Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia
Premature beats
Sick sinus syndrome
Ventricular tachycardia
Ventricular fibrillation
Torsades de pointes
Congenital Heart Disease
Atrial septal defect
Coarctation of aorta
Patent ductus arteriosus
Tetralogy of Fallot
Ventricular septal defect
Heart Failure

Hypertension
Essential
Secondary
Hypertensive emergencies Hypotension
Cardiogenic shock
Orthostatic hypotension
Coronary Heart Disease
Acute myocardial infarction
• Non-ST-segment elevation
• ST-segment
Angina pectoris
• Stable
• Unstable
• Prinzmetal variant
Vascular Disease
Aortic aneurysm/dissection
Arterial embolism/thrombosis
Giant cell arteritis
Peripheral artery disease
Phlebitis/thrombophlebitis
Varicose veins
Venous insufficiency
Venous thrombosis

Valvular Disease
Aortic stenosis
Aortic regurgitation
Mitral stenosis
Mitral regurgitation
Mitral valve prolapse
Tricuspid stenosis
Tricuspid regurgitation
Pulmonary stenosis
Pulmonary regurgitation
Other Forms of Heart Disease
Acute and subacute bacterial endocarditis
Acute pericarditis
Cardiac tamponade
Pericardial effusion

 

 

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